Tuesday, November 21, 2006


Music has always been sometime that people have liked to share with others and the internet has made that possible on a grand scale. You can now easily share music with friends or strangers anywhere in the world that has access to the world wide web with the help of a Peer to Peer File Sharing program.

There are many different Peer to Peer (commonly known as P2P) software programs. If you don’t already have one you have propably heard of one of them. The most popular of them being Limewire, Azeurus, Kazaa, Utorrent, Usenet, Emule and BitTorrent to name but a few. There are millions of users of P2P networks all over the world that enables you to share audio, video, text files (e.g. e-books), software programs and games.

There has been a lot of media attention focused on P2P networks because of legal issues to do with sharing copyright of the content. As well as the legal copyright risks involved with P2P filesharing there are also issues of harmful content / contact and with privacy and security.

How P2P works

P2P software is downloaded from the internet and installled on your P.C. The software creates a “shared media” folder on your P.C. in which files are stored that you wish to share with others

Monday, November 13, 2006

Session 7 - Doug Englebart & Ted Nelson

Ted Nelson discovered the concept of hypertext, influencing several developers of the Internet, most notably Tim Berners-Lee.
Ted Nelson's mother was an actress, and his father was a director. He went to Swarthmore College in the late 1950's, where he became a film maker. He then went to graduate school at the University of Chicago in 1959, followed by Harvard University in 1960, where he took a course in computer programming using an IBM 7090 computer and began to think about writing a document management system to index and organize his collection of notes.
As he considered the design of this system, Nelson applied his experience as a filmmaker with the conception of complex motion picture effects, moving from one shot to another, and conceived of the idea of hypertext. He became profoundly convinced of the enormous value of such a system, and has been thinking and talking about it ever since.
Nelson's first job was as a photographer and film editor at a Miami laboratory where John Lilly was carrying out research on the intelligence of dolphins, using LINC microcomputers to analyze their talking, as fascinated by acoustics as J.C.R. Licklider. Nelson then moved to a job teaching sociology at Vassar College.
The word "hypertext" was first coined by Nelson in 1963, and is first found in print in a college newspaper article about a lecture he gave called "Computers, Creativity, and the Nature of the Written Word" in January, 1965:

Nelson later popularized the hypertext concept in his book Literary Machines. His vision involved implementation of a "docuverse", where all data was stored once, there were no deletions, and all information was accessible by a link from anywhere else. Navigation through the information would be non-linear, depending on each individual's choice of links. This was more than text -- it was hypertext. The web realizes part of this vision, except that there are deletions, and some information is stored in more than one place.

Nelson has continued to develop his theory, and instantiates it with Project Xanadu, a high-performance hypertext system that assures the identity of references to objects, and solves the problems of configuration management and copyright control. Anyone is allowed to reference anything, provided that references are delivered from the original, and possibly involving micro payments to the copyright holders.
For example, the Xanadu system would enable an artist to post their work in electronic form and let it be accessed any number of times, without having to worry about suddenly receiving an insupportable bill for network bandwidth costs. By adding useful structure, the system frees up the information and makes it available to everyone.
Nelson has also worked on the following systems:
INLUV -- Interactive Non-Linear Undo and Versioning -- A rich compatibility standard for interconnection between different types of software.
Transpublishing -- A web enabled copyright and delivery method allowing people to republish other's work freely. Nelson's picture at the top of this page is transpublished.
Zigzag -- A multi-dimensional system of interconnections between all sorts of objects, processes, and documents, with a shareware version for Linux.
Some of the organizations Nelson has worked with are listed below:
The Xanadu Group. Nelson first used the term "Xanadu" to refer to his hypertext vision in 1967. In 1979 Nelson convened The Xanadu Group, including Stuart Greene, Roger Gregory, Roland King, Eric Hill, Mark Miller, and K. Eric Drexler, to work on the design for a database and file system to implement a hypertext system.
Xanadu Operating Company. Nelson created the Xanadu Operating Company, Inc. (XOC) in 1983.
Hypertext Conference. The first hypertext conference was held in 1987, supported by 23 companies, including Apple Computer, Bell Communications Research, Harvard University, and Xerox PARC, and published 29 research papers.
Autodesk. In February, 1988, the company Autodesk bought the Xanadu project and the Xanadu trademark. In August, 1992, they licensed the rights to the XOC software to Memex, Inc (later "Filoli"), named after Vannevar Bush's system, and the "Xanadu" trademark was given back to Nelson.
Serious Cybernetics. In 1993, Nelson reformulated his ideas as a system of business publishing relationships, and licensed the specification to Serious Cybernetics in Australia as Xanadu Australia.
Sapporo HyperLab. In 1994, Nelson moved to Japan and founded the Sapporo HyperLab. The latest specification was licensed to what was then SenseMedia as Xanadu America. One of the last pages is here.
Keio University. In 1996, Nelson became a Professor of Environmental Information at Keio University at Shonan Fujisawa, Japan.
Oxford Internet Institute. In 2004, Nelson was the first recipient of a new Visiting Fellowship at Wadham College linked to the Oxford Internet Institute (OII).
Nelson also maintains a home page on hyperland.com.
Resources. Nelson's hypertext ideas influenced the Hyper-G and Microcosm projects, Apple HyperCard -- the first commercial hypertext system developed by Bill Atkinson, and the Lotus Notes workgroup software.

Project Xanadu is Ted Nelson’s trademark. He wants to create a new breed of computer. One that kids will be able to program. It will allow the user freedom to collage and quote and compare. The collage will still be there.
Present computing is full of restrictions and the user is a prisoner to the applications he is using
Donald Norman (1988) writes
Hypertext requires a computer with high-resolution display, good graphics, a pointing device and a tremendous amount of memory.
Hypertext was invented by Ted Nelson although the basic idea can probably be traced to Vanevar Bush’s prophetic Atlantic Monthly “As we may think” (1945). Nelson’s books are pretty good examples of how close one can come to hypertext without the use of a computer .

This a link to an Adhd paper that writes about Ted Nelson

and an extract from that report

"Another person who represents the divide between discipline in childhood and rambunctious
creativity in adulthood is Ted Nelson, the inventor of hypertext and other visionary uses
of home computers and the web. He is well known for his conceptualization and development
of Xanadu“, a hypertext network ofdocuments that allows them to be "read
together while remaining integrally distinct. The goal of Xanadu“, on the one hand is
total and instantaneous information access; on the other hand, it is the continuous revelation
of the specific interconnectedness of all text." Nelson says that his inventions arose out of his
trouble fitting into conventional styles of study."

Douglas Englebart

Monday, November 06, 2006

Session 6 - Location Aware Services & Locative Media

Innovative development of Technology has allowed us to be connected today, more so than ever before. through the increase in it's use and it's availability to the overall population. It takes less time and money in today's world to mass produce technology thus enabling this widespread increase in connectedness. We have increased accessibility to mobile phones, PDAs, Laptops, MP3's, GPS, portable gaming devices, digital cameras, computers, the internet etc etc...

In the past, the arts world and the technology world have existed as two separate entities. But as technology progresses we are seing it taking a creative and artistic route and vice versa. Locative media is at the point when the two worlds overlap.

What Are Location-Based Services?

Location-based services (LBS) are applications that leverage the user's physical location to provide an enhanced service or experience. Location awareness can be used, for example, for mapping and navigation, shipment tracking, finding points of interest or a even virtual tour guide. Location awareness differentiates mobile applications from traditional PC and wired Internet services. GPS, RFID, Bluetooth are used in many locative media projects.

Ben Russell is the author of Headmap.org.uk (a blueprint for wireless technology, location aware devices) and one of the founders of the Locative Media Lab. In Russell’s on-line article for Vodafone Receiver Magazine, he discusses the social qualities of locative communication.

A location service or location-based service (LBS) in a cellular telephone network is a service provided to the subscriber based on their current geographic location. The position of a mobile phone user can be known by user entry, such as the input of a town name, zip code or street into a web page, or from a GPS chip built into the phone.

Here are some papers written on the subject of locative media

[ 'Social Media' ] Rachel Barron
[ 'Theory of the Dérive' ] Guy Debord
[ 'A User’s Guide to Détournement' ] Guy Debord + Gil Wolman
[ Pursedlipssquarejaw ] Anne Galloway
[ 'Protocol: How Control Exists After Decentralization' ] Alexander Galloway
[ 'The Locative Dystopia' ] Drew Hemment
['Sousveillance' ] Steve Mann
[ Locative Media and Social Code ] Ben Russel
[ Interactive Tele-Journalism - article about Shawn Van Every ] Dan Gillmor
[ The Situationist International Text Library ]
[ About Psychogepgraphy ]
[ WikiPedia: What is Psychogeography? ]
[ Wendy Hui Kyong Chun ]

Fun With GPS Donald Cooke


Privacy and Security in the Location-enhanced World Wide Web

Jason I. Hong1, Gaetano Boriello2,3, James A. Landay2,3, David W. McDonald4, Bill N. Schilit2, J. D. Tygar1
1 Computer Science Division, University of California, Berkeley
2 Intel Research Seattle, 1100 NE 45th Street, Seattle, WA 98105
3 Computer Science & Engineering, University of Washington
4 Information School, University of Washington
Privacy concerns remain a major barrier to adoption of location-based services. Users demand significant, concrete benefits before they are willing to allow an outside party to track their movements. We propose Place Lab, a trustworthy, secure location infrastructure that gives users control over the degree of personal information they release. Place Lab allows service providers to design

Link to full article: http://www.placelab.org/publications/pubs/ubicomp2003-privacy-placelab.pdf


locative media production http://www.we-make-money-not-art.com/

"Can You See Me?" Blast Theory.
Chandler, Rita. "High-tech game of hide and seek fascinates." USA Today, June 29, 2004.
"Colors." Gizmondo.
"Conqwest" Web site.
Geocaching: The Official Global GPS Cache Hunt Site. http://www.geocaching.com/
Girardin, Fabien. "Pervasive Game Development Today." March, 2005.
Graham-Rowe, Duncan. "Gamers turn cities into a battleground." New Scientist, June 12, 2005.
"Kidnap." Blast Theory.

Graffiti research lab




social locative stickies - socialight.com




smart phone map app




Location based services and location aware devices are now being deployed in the advertising and marketing industry. There are many innovative ad campaigns using various mobile and location based technologies.

One such campaign is leading advertising agency AKQA's for Yell.com. GPS systems on London Buses are utilised for the location aware ads. The London buses feature adverts for local businesses that change according to where the bus is. There are also interactive displays on the bus shelters where you can find out local business information, bus times, cinema times and maps. There are also giant screen in central London in areas where the traffic is always slow moving such as Kings Cross. The screens feature cctv like scenarios with yell.com finding a solution to the problem given with an appropriate phone number.


Click above link for a video of the Yell.com campaign

RFID in Japan
Crossing the chasm
« Horse Mackerel Traceability Main Information Resources on RFID in Korea »
RFID Jeans in Future Department Store
On January 17, Mitsukoshi and Fujitsu announced that their RFID pilot test, dubbed "Future Store - Department Store Version," will take place from January 31 till February 13 at New York Runway, a store on the 2nd floor of Mitsukoshi Ginza Department Store. This pilot test is part of the "Japanese Future Store" project which is led by the government.

5,000 pairs of jeans will be RFID-tagged for the purpose of inventory management and improvement of services and operations. The tagged jeans will be put on "smart shelves," which will allow continuous monitoring of jeans on shelves as well as stock rooms. The smart shelves have electronic-paper displays so that customers can check up-to-date inventory information by themselves.
Also, the store has six "intelligent fitting rooms" that are equipped with large-screen IP phones and RFID readers. In these fitting rooms, customers can, for example, easily get information about the availability of different sizes. In addition, there will be touch-panel computers in the store. Customers use them to get product recommendations ("e-recommendation") as well as detailed product information.
Moreover, Mitsukoshi will provide an experimental mobile "concierge" service using active RFID tags and mobile phones in order to uncover the possibilities (and limitations) of future store services. When customers carrying active RFID tags enter the store, their historical information (past visits to the store as well as purchase histories) is displayed on the mobile devices of sales agents. If customers want to interact with sales agents, they can push a button on the tag to call them.
via japan.internet.com, January 17, 2006 < href="http://interactive.usc.edu/members/sfisher/archives/2005/12/another_big_gam_1.html">http://interactive.usc.edu/members/sfisher/archives/2005/12/another_big_gam_1.html

Jan. 29, 2007—Ever since BMW subsidiary Mini USA brought the updated, sporty Mini Cooper to U.S. motorists in 2001, the wee car has been turning heads and generating a fervent fan base. Mini owners often nickname their Minis and detail them with custom paint jobs. Now, as part of a pilot program recently launched by the automaker's USA division, select Mini drivers in New York, Chicago, San Francisco and Miami can utilize RFID key fobs to initiate personalized messages on billboards containing LED displays.


Prada Uses RFID - click link below



A new online mag dedicated to locative media





Wearables Conference and Workshops - Rotterdam nov 06

Thursday, November 02, 2006


Social mobile software

Social software networks and mobile software have seen a massive rise in popularity in the last few years. Social software comes in many different forms, the most well known being Web logs (aka blogs), wikis and social networking and tagging sites.

Blogs are easily updated online personal journals which are arranged in diary format. Blogs are accessible for all to read and leave comments on.

Wikis are online encyclopedias that can be extended and edited by users. The most popular of them being Wikipedia which was started in 2001, it currently contains 1,507,723 articles.

Social networking - My space. In May 2006 - Comscore’s Media Matrix reported that My Space had 51.4 Million unique visitors making it the 7th most frequented website in the world. Based on its size it would be the 12th largest country in the world.

The following link will dirct you to my comprehensive list of social networking sites


Social Tagging sites such as del.icio.us and Blink list allow users to share their favourites/bookmarks with others. The bookmarks are tagged with keywords which enables the user to search for resources via others’ tags. This puts information in a social context, so you can find resources that others found useful and how they categorized them.

The Value of User-Generated Content

There is an increased prevalence of user-generated content (UGC) — discussion groups, blogs, wikis — on the Internet

What is User-Generated Content?

Engineered Content is created by established knowledge experts and content owners who are part of an official intranet team. Engineered content is usually expert edited, meaning it's passed from the content provider to an authority on the subject matter — a sort of quality control stage where the content is verified and edited by an expert if necessary — before it's posted onto the intranet. Since this type of content has a high level of oversight, many users consider it more reliable and credible.

UGC, on the other hand, is created by users themselves. It can be in the form of posts on discussion groups, personal or departmental blogs, or wikis. UGC can come from many of sources — and in much greater numbers than engineered content — with varying degrees of content oversight. Unfortunately, UGC is also more likely to contain biased information, blurring the line between fact and interpretation. In this respect, UGC can end up telling readers more about the author than on the subject matter. Users might view UGC as being less reliable in their decision making process.

User-Generated vs. Engineered Content

If an intranet populated with engineered content is like the 60 Minutes news show, where stories are worked on by veteran reporters and producers, then UGC is a call-in program where viewers themselves provide much of the content — in the form of opinions and questions — for the show. But the differences between user-generated and engineered content extend beyond the issue of who's providing it. There are issues of:

Ownership: Engineered content — commissioned by official intranet teams — is clearly intellectual property belonging to the organization, but who owns UGC? When users provide commentary using corporate resources, will the company or the author own the intellectual property?

Quality and Relevance: Since any user can create UGC, via multiple points of entry, it's more difficult to control the quality and relevance of the content being input.

Structure: Depending on the medium used, it might be difficult to structure, classify, and index (for search engines) free-form UGC.

Credibility:Since all users can become potential content providers, little is known about the credibility of the person and the content being posted

Oversight: If anyone is allowed to create intranet content, how will submissions be governed and moderated (if at all).

Listed below are some of the pros and cons of User Generated Content:


  • Many more methods of content entry, making it less restrictive
  • A wider content provider base means more areas of knowledge can be covered
  • Provides knowledge experts who aren't part of the intranet team with a medium in which to share their knowledge
  • Allows all users the choice of becoming intranet participants rather than just spectators

  • Might cause content overlap or duplication
  • The credibility of the source and the content might not always be apparent
  • The easy availability of content submission media might cause less-than-helpful users to post biased or questionable content
  • Very difficult to organize and structure free-form UGC

Moderating User-Generated Content

  1. Pre-production moderation: Content is submitted (or edited) by users but isn't made available in the production environment until it's reviewed and verified by a knowledge expert. If they deem that the content is relevant and will be useful to users, the content is made live. Pre-production moderation will ensure the highest level of quality, but there's a delay between the time content is written and when it's made live.

  2. Post-production moderation: Content is submitted (or edited) by users and is immediately live, viewable by everyone the moment it's posted. Knowledge experts review the live content and make necessary changes (or delete entire entries). Post-production moderation makes content availability much quicker but may contain more errors or irrelevant submissions. The integrity of the intranet will depend on how quickly questionable or irrelevant content is caught.

  3. Peer-based moderation: Content is submitted (or edited) by users, is immediately live, and is not moderated by official knowledge experts. Users basically govern other users' submissions. If they notice errors or questionable content, they report it to official intranet owners for action. This community driven editing process relies on the conscientiousness of users to ensure the integrity of the content. UGC can also be rated (e.g., on a scale of 1 to 5) by other users to give readers an indication as to the quality of the content.





Virtual Worlds have become increasingly popular over the last few years one of the most popular is Second LIfe

"Since its launch in 2003, Second Life has signed up more than one and half million residents, with half a million active within the last 60 days. More than 10,000 people join each day. In September 2006 it grew at an amazing rate of 38%. Companies and entrepreneurs have discovered the economic potential of Second Life and about $500,000 (US Dollars) are spent there everyday."
.net magazine - Jan 2007

The following ink takes you to a comprehensive list of links and information about the many virtual world websites